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Hardware/software co-design (HSCD) aims at automating the design of complex embedded systems with functionality in both hardware and software. The central task of HSCD is hardware/software partitioning, i.e., deciding which components of the system to implement in hardware and which ones in software. During partitioning, the conflicting requirements on performance, costs, energy consumption, etc., have to be taken into account. This book addresses the hardware/software partitioning problem from an algorithmic point of view. It proposes a novel formal framework for the definition of different variants of the problem. Most variants are shown to be NP-hard, but there are also important cases that can be solved optimally in polynomial time. Furthermore, the book describes three new heuristics for the NP-hard versions of the problem: a genetic algorithm, an adaptation of the Kernighan-Lin heuristic, and a completely new algorithm based on the combinatorial properties of the hardware/software partitioning problem. It is demonstrated with empirical results how the three algorithms can cope with industrial benchmarks as well as large random problem instances.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Proprietary hardware is computer hardware which is owned by the proprietor. Historically, most early computer hardware was designed as proprietary until the 1980s, when IBM PC changed this paradigm. Earlier, in 1970s, many vendors tried to challenge IBM''s monopoly in the mainframe computer market by reverse engineering and producing hardware components electrically compatible with expensive equipment and (usually) able to run the same software. Those vendors were nicknamed plug compatible manufacturers (PCMs).
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Open source hardware is hardware that is designed and offered in the same manner as free and open source software. Open source hardware is part of the open source culture and applies the open source concept to hardware. Open source hardware usually means that information about the hardware is open to all. This would include the hardware design, as well as a FOSS approach to the software that drives the hardware. Since the rise of reconfigurable programmable logic devices, sharing of logic designs has been a form of open source hardware. Instead of sharing the schematics, as in hardware description language, code is shared. HDL descriptions are commonly used to set up system-on-a-chip systems either in field-programmable gate arrays or directly in application-specific integrated circuit designs. HDL modules, when distributed, are called semiconductor intellectual property cores, or IP cores.
This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection.
This book presents the general software agent models but with hardware structures. The basic concepts of multi-agent technology are discussed and how these concepts can be developed and incorporated in hardware systems with reconfigurable logics. How hardware agents can be created using conventional hardware description languages. Several examples that implement finite state and data flow machines using hardware agents are presented. The potential use of these new type of agents in image-processing and information gathering or monitoring systems is examined. Then how this hardware multi-agent technology can be applied to real-time data and sensor fusion applications is presented. The concepts, applications and examples presented in this book should be especially useful to students, researchers and engineers both in software and hardware fields who are working in the area of parallel processing systems or want to use such systems and are looking for a way to increase the speed, flexibility and performance of their operations considerably.
Embedded computer systems literally surround us: they're in our cell phones, PDAs, cars, TVs, refrigerators, heating systems, and more. In fact, embedded systems are one of the most rapidly growing segments of the computer industry today.Along with the growing list of devices for which embedded computer systems are appropriate, interest is growing among programmers, hobbyists, and engineers of all types in how to design and build devices of their own. Furthermore, the knowledge offered by this book into the fundamentals of these computer systems can benefit anyone who has to evaluate and apply the systems.The second edition of Designing Embedded Hardware has been updated to include information on the latest generation of processors and microcontrollers, including the new MAXQ processor. If you're new to this and don't know what a MAXQ is, don't worry--the book spells out the basics of embedded design for beginners while providing material useful for advanced systems designers.Designing Embedded Hardware steers a course between those books dedicated to writing code for particular microprocessors, and those that stress the philosophy of embedded system design without providing any practical information. Having designed 40 embedded computer systems of his own, author John Catsoulis brings a wealth of real-world experience to show readers how to design and create entirely new embedded devices and computerized gadgets, as well as how to customize and extend off-the-shelf systems.Loaded with real examples, this book also provides a roadmap to the pitfalls and traps to avoid. Designing Embedded Hardware includes:* The theory and practice of embedded systems* Understanding schematics and data sheets* Powering an embedded system* Producing and debugging an embedded system* Processors such as the PIC, Atmel AVR, and Motorola 68000-series* Digital Signal Processing (DSP) architectures* Protocols (SPI and I2C) used to add peripherals* RS-232C, RS-422, infrared communication, and USB* CAN and Ethernet networking* Pulse Width Monitoring and motor controlIf you want to build your own embedded system, or tweak an existing one, this invaluable book gives you the understanding and practical skills you need.
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The hardware of the Macintosh is produced solely by Apple Inc., who determines internal systems, designs, and prices. Apple directly sub-contracts hardware production to Asian OEM laptop manufacturers such as Asus, maintaining a high degree of control over the end product. Apple buys certain components wholesale from third-party manufacturers. The current Mac product family uses Intel x86-64 processors. All Mac models ship with at least 1 GB RAM as standard. Current Mac computers use ATI Radeon or nVidia GeForce graphics cards and include a dual-function DVD and CD burner, called the SuperDrive.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.Open source hardware is hardware that is designed and offered in the same manner as free and open source software. Open source hardware is part of the open source culture that applies the open source concept to endevours other than software. The term has primarily been used to reflect the free release of information about the hardware design, such as schematics, bill of materials and PCB layout data, often with the use of FOSS to drive the hardware.